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Huge surfaces of concrete and asphalt lead to overheating of the atmosphere in urban areas and cause dirt and particles of harmful substances that settle on the ground, swirl up from the generated heat and spread over the entire city . On summer nights, air temperatures between 4 ° and 11 ° C higher than in the suburbs are reached in the center of a large city (Lötsch 1981). According to Lötsch, cities have up to 15% fewer hours of direct sunlight and a higher frequency of fog (from 30 to 100%) depending on the time of year.
Gardens on the roads and landscaped courtyards, but especially landscaped roofs and facades, could decisively improve the polluted climate of cities: the air would be purified, dust eddies would be considerably reduced and variations in temperature and humidity levels would decrease. To achieve a healthy urban climate, it would probably be sufficient to landscape 10-20% of all roofed areas in the city, since an uncut grass roof has on average 5-10 times more leaf area than the same area in an open park.
It can be based on the fact that in the central neighborhoods of large cities 1/3 of the surface is built up, 1/3 corresponds to streets and squares, in turn paved, and only 1/3 of green surfaces remains without to pave. If only for every five roofs there were one grass, the area of leaves in that city would double.
Green roofs, in addition to influencing the improvement of the city's climate, also optimize thermal insulation, the building's heat storage, and its acoustic insulation. They are also considered, in the long term, cheaper than conventional covers.
The landscaped roofs lead, in essence, to an ecological and economic construction. As noted below:
- paved surfaces decrease,
- produce oxygen and absorb CO2,
- filter dust and dirt particles from the air and absorb harmful particles,
- prevent overheating of ceilings and thereby reduce dust eddies,
- reduce the temperature variations of the day-night cycle and
- humidity variations in the air decrease.
- have a long useful life, if their execution is correct,
- they work as thermal insulation,
- protect the rooms located under the roof from the intense sun rays of summer,
- reduce the passage of sound from outside,
- are worth as fireproof and
- They absorb rain, thus relieving the sewer system.
And finally, something no less relevant:
- the wild herbs on the green roof generate pleasant aromas,
- they house insects and beetles,
- they are aesthetic and positively influence the good mood and relaxation of people.